Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is the most common disorder of arterial blood flow to the peripheral arteries. PAOD is promoted by risk factors and comorbidities, such as smoking, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and chronic renal failure. Epidemiological studies indicate that periodontitis can increase the risk of PAOD. Periodontitis is a common, chronic inflammation of the periodontium caused by accumulation of bacterial biofilm. It is promoted by poor oral hygiene, smoking, and diabetes, and the prevalence increases with age. Both diseases and/or their symptoms can be treated if therapy starts early. Thus, early detection is particularly important. Although there is still no evidence of a causal role of periodontitis in the development of PAOD, the data summarized in the current article support the suggestion of a professional collaboration between physicians in vascular care and dentists. Referring PAOD patients to the dentist for diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis should be considered, regardless of the stage of their disease. Conversely, dentists should consider referring patients suffering from a severe form of periodontitis to vascular specialists.