Atrial fibrillation (AF)-associated remodeling includes contractile dysfunction whose reasons are only partially resolved. Serotonin (5-HT) increases contractile force and causes arrhythmias in atrial trabeculae from patients in sinus rhythm (SR). In persistent atrial fibrillation (peAF), the force responses to 5-HT are blunted and arrhythmic effects are abolished. Since force but not arrhythmic responses to 5-HT in peAF could be restored by PDE3 + PDE4 inhibition, we sought to perform real-time measurements of cAMP to understand whether peAF alters PDE3 + PDE4-mediated compartmentation of 5-HT4 receptor-cAMP responses. Isolated human atrial myocytes from patients in SR, with paroxysmal AF (paAF) or peAF, were adenovirally transduced to express the FRET-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps. Forty-eight hours later, cAMP responses to 5-HT (100 μM) were measured in the absence or concomitant presence of the PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide (0.3 μM) and the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (1 μM). We successfully established real-time cAMP imaging in AF myocytes. 5-HT increased cAMP in SR, paAF, and peAF, but in line with previous findings on contractility, this increase was considerably smaller in peAF than in SR or paAF. The maximal cAMP response to forskolin (10 μM) was preserved in all groups. The diminished cAMP response to 5-HT in peAF was recovered by preincubation with cilostamide + rolipram. We uncovered a significantly diminished cAMP response to 5-HT4 receptor stimulation which may explain the blunted 5-HT inotropic responses observed in peAF. Since both cAMP and force responses but not arrhythmic responses were recovered after concomitant inhibition of PDE3 + PDE4, they might be regulated in different subcellular microdomains.