BACKGROUND: The urgent treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) remains a challenging condition with devastating morbidity and mortality. Available studies are often limited due to a significant selection bias. This study aims to illuminate real-world evidence using comprehensive data from electronic health records, registries, postmortem findings, and administrative data on all consecutively treated patients presenting with rAAA at a tertiary care center.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study covering consecutively treated patients with rAAA between 2009 and 2018. All noninvasive treatments, fatalities, and invasive repairs were included. Information on patient's characteristics, prehospital, and inpatient care was gathered. Short-term outcomes and long-term survival were analyzed for relevant subgroups.
RESULTS: In total, 139 patients with rAAA (median age 75 years and 20.9% females, 79.9% infrarenal) were treated increasingly frequent by endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) when compared to open-surgical aortic repair (OSR) during the study period (16.7% in 2009 to 33.3% in 2018, P < 0.05). The rate of patients who had been turned down for rAAA repair was 10.8%, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 43.2%. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were similar for EVAR and OSR, although patients treated by OSR presented with a lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale during the prehospital (12.7 vs. 14.3) and inpatient care (12.7 vs. 14.4) (both P < 0.001), higher rates of intubation (12.8% vs. 10.9%, P < 0.001), lower systolic blood pressure (115 mm Hg vs. 127 mm Hg, P = 0.042), and more often had a cardiac arrest before the operation (14.1% vs. 2.3%, P < 0.001). Higher patient's age (Odds Ratio, OR 1.09; Hazard Ratio, HR 1.06), history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (OR 5.30; HR 2.64), higher serum creatinine (OR 1.81; HR 1.31), and occurrence of colonic ischemia (OR 11.31; HR 2.82) were significantly associated with higher odds of dying in hospital and in the longer term, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed comparable outcomes following OSR and EVAR, although hemodynamically unstable patients were more likely to be treated by OSR. This study also confirmed the impact of colonic ischemia as a devastating complication following rAAA repair emphasizing the need for further reflection by the vascular community.