Objectives: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and periodontitis are common chronic diseases, which together affect almost 1 billion people worldwide. There is growing evidence suggesting a relationship between chronic inflammatory conditions such as periodontitis and PAOD. This study aims to determine an association between both entities using high quality research data and multiple phenotypes derived from an epidemiological cohort study. Design: This population-based cross-sectional cohort study included data from 3271 participants aged between 45 and 74 years enrolled in the Hamburg City Health Study (NCT03934957). Material & Methods: An ankle-brachial-index below 0.9, color-coded ultrasound of the lower extremity arteries, and survey data was used to identify participants with either asymptomatic or symptomatic PAOD. Periodontitis data was collected at six sites per tooth and included the probing depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing index. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression models were adjusted for variables including age, sex, smoking, education, diabetes, and hypertension. Results: The baseline characteristics differed widely between participants neither affected by periodontitis nor PAOD vs. the group where both PAOD and severe periodontitis were identified. A higher rate of males, higher age, lower education level, smoking, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease was observed in the group affected by both diseases. After adjusting, presence of severe periodontitis (odds ratio 1.265; 97.5% CI 1.006–1.591; p = 0.045) was independently associated with PAOD. Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study, an independent association between periodontitis and PAOD was revealed. The results of the current study emphasize a potential for preventive medicine in an extremely sensitive target population. Future studies should determine the underlying factors modifying the relationship between both diseases.