Background: Ultra-high density mapping (HDM) is a promising tool in the treatment of patients with complex arrhythmias. In adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), rhythm disorders are among the most common complications but catheter ablation can be challenging due to heterogenous anatomy and complex arrhythmogenic substrates. Here, we describe our initial experience using HDM in conjunction with novel automated annotation algorithms in patients with moderate to great CHD complexity.
Methods: We studied a series of consecutive adult patients with moderate to great CHD complexity and an indication for catheter ablation due to symptomatic arrhythmia. HDM was conducted using the Rhythmia™ mapping system and a 64-electrode mini-basket catheter for identification of anatomy, voltage, activation pattern and critical areas of arrhythmia for ablation guidance. To investigate novel advanced mapping strategies, postprocedural signal processing using the Lumipoint™ software was applied.
Results: In 19 patients (53±3 years; 53% male), 21 consecutive ablation procedures were conducted. Procedures included ablation of atrial fibrillation (n=7; 33%), atrial tachycardia (n=11; 52%), atrioventricular accessory pathway (n=1; 5%), the atrioventricular node (n=1; 5%) and ventricular arrhythmias (n=4; 19%). A total of 23 supraventricular and 8 ventricular arrhythmias were studied with the generation of 56 complete high density maps (atrial n=43; ventricular n=11, coronary sinus n=2) and an average of 12,043±1,679 mapping points. Multiple arrhythmias were observed in n=7 procedures (33% of procedures; range of arrhythmias detected 2-4). A total range of 1-4 critical areas were defined per procedure and treated within a radiofrequency application time of 16 (interquartile range 12-45) minutes. Postprocedural signal processing using Lumipoint™ allowed rapid annotation of fractionated signals within specific windows of interest. This supported identification of a practical critical isthmus in 20 out of 27 completed atrial and ventricular tachycardia activation maps.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HDM in conjunction with novel automated annotation algorithms provides detailed insights into arrhythmia mechanisms and might facilitate tailored catheter ablation in patients with moderate to great CHD complexity.